IOT components
IOT components

In this blogpost, the components of IoT will be discussed, what are the hardware elements and interfaces will be used in any IoT.

IoT is used to connect objects or things with the internet and data like temperature, pressure, etc. will be collected and processed, and stored in the cloud system.

This way the status of the equipment, object, or things will be updated into the cloud system and that helps us to take meaningful decisions.

To understand the IoT and it is very important to understand How IoT works? and What are the components required to build an IoT application?

Components of IoT

There are many hardware components or circuit system that required to build any IoT system. The following components will be used in any IoT system.

  1. Sensors/Devices
  2. Connectivity
  3. Data Processing
  4. User Interfaces
  5. Edge or Fog Computing

Next, we will see one by one how these elements are integrated and how these elements are working with each other.

  1. Sensors/Devices

Sensor/ Sensible devices are the first one we are going to discuss here. So, the sensors are directly contacting with the objects or physical assets so that these senses the amount of relevant data like temperature, pressure, electromagnetic values.

So, the origin of the data is from here only, when the state of the object changes this will observe the delta changes and passes these values to numerical values.

The sensor can be a single sensor or a bundle of sensors, and the different sensors are bundled in a single device nowadays. So, the market also likes to deliver the different sensors in single packages to satisfy the need of the consumers.

So, the sensors are directly contacting with the physical objects and sensing the required parameter in an IoT system.

  1. Connectivity

Next what we are going to discuss is connectivity, how the sensor data will be sent to the cloud system.

For this, the sensors or devices used for the data collection will be connected with the connectivity method that uses different devices for connectivity depends upon the requirement and range.

The following are the connectivity method that will be used to transfer the data.

  1. Bluetooth
  2. LoRaWAN
  3. WiFi
  4. Satellite
  5. Cellular network
  6. Router
  7. Ethernet connection

So, the collected data from the sensor will be connected with any one of the above connectivity methods to transfer the data to the cloud system.

  1. Data Processing

Previously we discussed the connectivity that connects with the sensors and collects the data from the objects and this data will be processed like addition or finding average or predicting the image or object detection.

This mathematical processing and image deduction will be carried out by the data processing method.

This data processing will software’s and programmatic languages and converting those data into meaningful insights.

A complex algorithm or third-party software can be used.

  1. User Interface

The data received from the IoT will be the raw data that may not be meaningful to the user and can not be used in any data visualization.

Imagine you have huge data, reading the continuous data will not give any good information and sometimes these need to summarize, sometimes these data need to be filtered with the pattern, sometimes same data will be plotted to X-Y graph, sometimes exceeding the range of data need to notify to the end-user and create awareness about the accidents. So, the data need to be converted to readable data and be representable to the user.

  1. Edge Computing in IoT

Edge computing can be used in IoT to take small level decision making or can be used to carry out the next activity once getting the comments from the user.

The edge computing will process the received data and the same data will be converted to other meaningful data.

There will be higher-level decision making and lower-level decision making, higher-level decision making requires some expert or user advice and low-level decision making does not need any authority.

So, the edge and Fog computing can be used to take the lower-level decision based on the inputs given by the user.

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